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May 1, 2022 BlogGlaucoma

The eye is a fragile and carefully balanced organ. At the very front of the eye is a fluid-filled chamber called the anterior chamber. This is located between the clear cornea at the front and the pupil, where light enters the rest of the eye. The fluid that fills this area is called the aqueous humor. The aqueous humor is critically important for cleaning and bringing nutrients to the lens. It is like a clear version of blood. Another key job the aqueous humor performs is maintaining eye pressure.

The pressure in the eye needs to be maintained within a very specific range (12-22 mm Hg). Aqueous humor continuously flows through the front of the eye at a very slow rate (like blood, but slower). When the flow rate out of the eye gets disrupted, eye pressure increases.

Doctors call high eye pressure ocular hypertension. The major characteristic is increased eye pressure without other symptoms. When eye pressure causes damage to the optic nerve, we call it glaucoma. Glaucoma can occur in two ways, closed angle or open angle. Closed angle is sudden and a medical emergency. Open angle makes up almost all cases of glaucoma and is gradual in onset. Typical symptoms of open angle glaucoma are vision problems in the middle of sight. These can include trouble with reading, seeing faces, walking, and driving. Both types will cause permanent blindness if untreated.

Open angle glaucoma can happen to anyone, but is much more common with adults over 60 years old. Most cases are females, and black and Asian populations experience higher rates of the condition. There are several underlying reasons for open-angle glaucoma: vascular, anatomical, genetic, or immune. Because of this wide spread of causes, there are several risk factors:

  • Genetics / Family history
  • Diabetes
  • Extreme nearsightedness
  • Hypertension
  • Eye injury
  • Eye abnormalities
  • Steroid use
  • Smoking

Several treatments are available for glaucoma. These include surgical and medication-based treatments, and surgically implanted medications. The goal of all treatments is to increase the flow of fluid out, decrease the amount of fluid coming in, or to decrease the volume of the anterior chamber. Medications are quite effective when taken properly. Unfortunately, fewer than one third of patients adhere to doctor recommendations for glaucoma eye drops after a year. This is in spite of the condition being progressive in nature and leading to blindness. Effective implanted medication delivery systems may provide better outcomes for patients.

To get involved in the latest glaucoma research, contact our Nature Coast Crystal River office.


Sources:

Allison, K., Patel, D., & Alabi, O. (2020). Epidemiology of glaucoma: the past, present, and predictions for the future. Cureus, 12(11).

Li, F., Huang, W., & Zhang, X. (2018). Efficacy and safety of different regimens for primary open‐angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: A systematic review and network meta‐analysis. Acta ophthalmologica, 96(3), e277-e284.

Robin, A. L., & Muir, K. W. (2019). Medication adherence in patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma. Expert Review of Ophthalmology, 14(4-5), 199-210.


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January 7, 2020 BlogGlaucoma

Glaucoma is a common eye disease that can gradually steal your vision. The term glaucoma refers to a collection of eye diseases that damage the optic nerve. This damage can lead to permanent vision loss or even total blindness. Glaucoma is considered a major cause of blindness in the general population.

A major concern is that glaucoma often presents no early symptoms but continues to cause gradual, un-reversable damage. In most cases, glaucoma is diagnosed in people who are older than 40 but can still develop at an earlier age. An estimated 3.54% of adults between 40 and 80 years have been diagnosed with some type of glaucoma.

 

Causes Of Glaucoma

In most types of glaucoma, the eye’s drainage system becomes clogged so the intraocular fluid cannot drain. As the fluid builds up, it causes pressure to build inside the eye.  High pressure damages the sensitive optic nerve and results in vision loss.

 

People are more likely to develop glaucoma if they:

  • Are over the age of 40
  • Have a family history of glaucoma
  • Have high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, or sickle cell anemia
  • Are of African American, Irish, Russian, Japanese, Hispanic, Inuit, or Scandinavian descent
  • Take certain steroid medications such as prednisone
  • Have had an injury to your eye or eyes
  • Have high eye pressure (ocular hypertension)

 

Current Treatments Available

Unfortunately, there is not currently a cure for glaucoma. However, there are several therapies that can help reduce eye pressure and the rate of damage to the optic nerve. Current approved treatment options for glaucoma include eyedrops, oral medications, laser surgery, or microsurgery.

 

Clinical Research Advancements

New clinical trials for glaucoma are focused on more innovative ways to treat the disease. Researchers are studying everything from electric current stimulation to slow release eye implants to help find relief for patients with glaucoma.

You can help advance medical research by participating in a clinical trial! Contact any of our offices to see what clinical trials are enrolling today.

 

 

References:

https://www.aaojournal.org/article/S0161-6420(14)00433-3/abstract
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/glaucoma/symptoms-causes/syc-20372839
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4927811/


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