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Celiac disease is one of the major health issues on our planet, affecting around 1% of the population (that’s about 80 million people!). Celiac disease is more likely to occur in females. Though onset can occur at any age, it is most likely to be discovered around age two or during young adulthood.

Celiac disease is commonly known as gluten intolerance and is classically characterized by its gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight loss, and other digestive issues. Additionally, there are other symptoms that are unrelated to the digestive system. These include anemia, bone density issues, neurological symptoms, skin rash, and more. Together these make for a severe detriment in the quality of life of most celiac sufferers.

Like most autoimmune disorders, the leading symptoms come from the body’s immune system overreacting and causing damage. Celiac disease is unusual in that the reason for the immune response is gluten, which we eat. Gluten is a structural protein found in wheat, rye, barley, spelt, and kamut. Gluten isn’t fully digestible, and some intact protein pieces make it through the stomach into the intestines. In celiac patients, the protein pieces cross the intestinal lining and are mistaken for dangerous particles or microorganisms. This can trick the immune system into action, causing inflammation and damage.

The number of people with celiac disease has been growing significantly. Five times as many people had the condition in 2000, compared with 1975. Scientists are still unsure why the disease has been growing worldwide. Better clinical testing, a spread of high gluten Mediterranean diets, and new varieties of grain are leading theories. Scientists have been able to discover much of the underlying mechanism of how celiac disease occurs, thankfully. It is genetic, and the key player appears to be HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 antigens which mistake gluten for danger. The presence of HLA-DQ2/DQ8 isn’t enough to guarantee celiac disease, but it is required. Additional contributors are thought to be other genes, environmental factors, and gut microbiota. Regardless, 95% of celiac patients have one of these dangerous antigens.

Currently, the only treatment for celiac is a strict gluten-free diet. This can be difficult to maintain, and even with a gluten-free diet, some patients continue to have symptoms. Additionally, contaminants can be unknowingly present in food and even low amounts of gluten can cause a resurgence of symptoms. Scientists are looking for new ways to combat this disease and participating in clinical trials is the best way that you can help move celiac disease medicine forward.

Written by: Benton Lowey-Ball, B.S. Behavioral Neuroscience



Source:

Caio, G., Volta, U., Sapone, A., Leffler, D. A., De Giorgio, R., Catassi, C., & Fasano, A. (2019). Celiac disease: a comprehensive current review. BMC medicine, 17(1), 1-20.


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The questions that have many people puzzled are finally going to be answered: What is gluten and is it actually bad for you? Gluten is a mixture of two types of proteins. It is responsible for the elastic texture of dough. These proteins are commonly found in wheat, rye, oats and barley. Gluten helps food keep its shape and acts like a glue that holds certain foods together. 

For those with celiac disease, gluten can be particularly dangerous. Gluten triggers an immune response in people with the disease, resulting in damages in the lining of the small intestine. These damages can obstruct a person’s ability to absorb nutrients from food and lead to problems like osteoporosis, infertility, nerve damage, and seizures.

Adults with celiac disease show many digestive and other symptoms including:

Digestive symptoms:

  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Bloating and gas
  • Abdominal pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Constipation

Non-Digestive Symptoms:

  • Iron deficiency causing anemia 
  • Rashes on the skin 
  • Mouth ulcers
  • Headaches and fatigue
  • Joint pain
  • Corrupt functioning of the spleen (hyposplenism)

Gluten can be found in many different kinds of foods. It may be present in more foods than you think. The main foods to look out for which contain high amounts of gluten are processed foods, such as canned or boxed items, sweets, including cakes, pies and candies, cereals, bread, beer, pasta and more. 

Currently, the only treatment for celiac disease is to completely eradicate gluten from a person’s diet, which can be difficult. In order to help those suffering from this disease, it is imperative to do more research including participating in clinical trials. If you have celiac disease and want to be at the forefront of medicine, click the “enrolling studies” tab for more information about current clinical trials.

Source: Harvard Health, Celiac Disease Foundation 


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Gluten Free. This has become a household term. Everyone has heard of gluten free diets, but not everyone comprehends why this distinction is necessary. For people with celiac disease, gluten can be devastating, and it is essential for food labeling to be correct. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine. (1) Even ingesting minuscule quantities of gluten, such as crumbs from a toaster, can trigger intestinal damage. This damage can prevent the body from properly absorbing nutrients. Celiac disease is hereditary and is estimated to affect 1% of people worldwide.

 

There are more than 200 known symptoms of celiac disease, which can make it a nightmare to diagnose. It is estimated that there are 2.5 million undiagnosed Americans. When you mention celiac, most people think of digestive symptoms however, only around one-third of adults with the disorder experience digestive symptoms like diarrhea. Common symptoms include: fatigue, joint pain, arthritis, fatty liver, depression or anxiety, peripheral neuropathy, migraines, canker sores, and skin rash. If left untreated, Celiac disease can lead to many long-term health complications. Unfortunately, the only way to accurately diagnose celiac disease is to have an endoscopic biopsy. Once a diagnosis is made, the challenge of managing the condition begins.

 

Currently, the only effective treatment for celiac disease is to follow a strict gluten-free diet. However, the future is not bleak. Researchers from around the world are working to find effective pharmaceutical treatments. COUR Pharmaceuticals is researching a drug which aims to reprogram the body’s immune system to tolerate gluten subsequently reversing the signs and symptoms of Celiac disease.(2) Additionally, the Journal of Biological Chemistry notes that scientists have discovered a protein associated with celiac disease can be inactivated, paving the way for new treatment possibilities.(3)

References:

  1. https://celiac.org/celiac-disease/understanding-celiac-disease-2/what-is-celiac-disease/
  2. https://www.courpharma.com/pipeline-and-programs/
  3. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/02/180223122343.htm

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